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TED-Where will you be able to live in 20 years

2024-02-19 22:08  浏览数:353  来源:小键人kk

Mohammadpur has always had a unique relationship with the
weather. Located at the mouth of the Bay of Bengal, this coastal
village was built on top of the Meghna River delta. Deltas are a
kind of landmass formed when sediment carried by rivers is
deposited where that river meets a larger body of water. River
deltas are incredibly fertile ecosystems capable of supporting
abundant agriculture and marine life.
However, their borders gradually change as rivers bring more
sediment in and storms wash sediment away. The residents of
Mohammadpur are well accustomed to managing the ebbs and
flows of this ever-shifting landscape. But lately, an abundance
of intense cyclones have caused frequent flooding that impedes
farming and fishing. These floods also erode the coastline,
allowing later storms to wipe away land altogether. Since 2000,
the Meghna River has overtaken the coastline by 2.5 kilometers,
forcing many villagers to move inland or to nearby cities.
Mohammadpur isn’t the only place where erratic weather is
impacting people’s mobility. Repeated typhoons in the
Philippines have displaced thousands from their homes. In Fiji,
the government is already moving many coastal villages inland
to get ahead of predicted land loss. And in the United States,
melting permafrost is causing chunks of the Alaskan coastline to
erode.
In some ways, this is nothing new. Humanity has always adapted
to changing weather and moved to regions that best support
cultural lifestyles and livelihoods. However, scientists agree that
this rise in extreme weather is a by-product of Earth’s rapidly
changing climate. Global warming increases the frequency and
intensity of storms, flooding and drought, while also melting
polar ice caps and raising sea levels.
These factors are changing the environment much faster than
they have in the past. Even for communities with the resources to
take action, the variable pace and nature of these changes makes
them difficult to adapt to. And the vulnerable populations most
impacted by climate change are often those least responsible.
Many facing climate mobility live in farming and fishing
communities in countries that generate dramatically fewer
emissions than their larger counterparts.
Bangladesh is one such country. The nation has a unique
combination of low-lying geography and heavily populated
coastal regions. Most of these vulnerable coastal families, like
those in Mohammadpur, don’t want to abandon their homes and
livelihoods. And for others, leaving Bangladesh isn’t financially
practical. So to stay with their communities, many have moved
a few meters inland and built more resilient homes on higher
ground or elevated stilts.
Others have tried to buy land on newly emerging islands in the
delta, while some have sent family members to find work in
nearby cities. A handful of individuals might even cross
international borders, if they have family, friends, or work
connections on the other side. But many of the residents who’ve
left are eager to return home.
Unfortunately, it's unclear when weather extremes will die
down, and the government has repeatedly delayed projects to
build concrete embankments that would prevent further erosion.
In other parts of the world, people couldn’t move inland even if
they wanted to. The low-lying Pacific Island nations of Kiribati
and Tuvalu are only 811 square kilometers and 26 square
kilometers, respectively; so migration would mean moving to a
different country altogether.
Instead, their governments and citizens have united in
physically, legally, and politically fortifying their countries.
Island residents are planting coastal mangrove forests, and
building up low-lying areas of land with dredged sand to shield
themselves against storms and rising sea levels. And the islands’
governments have repeatedly lobbied on the global stage for
countries with the highest emissions to reduce pollution and take
responsibility for climate change.
The challenges facing each coastal community are unique, and
the diversity of the people's experiences can make climate
mobility a difficult phenomenon to measure and define. But as
new communities are endangered by exterme weather, it’s more
important than ever to listen to those on the front lines of this
crisis.



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